Ceriths: Family Cerithiidae

Ceriths: Family Cerithiidae

Ceriths are fairly common on S. Hutchinson Island and you can usually find one every collecting trip

Two Flyspeck Ceriths

Ceriths: Family Cerithiidae

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Rhinoclavis vertagus shell.jpg
Apertural view of a shell of Rhinoclavis vertagus.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:     Animalia
Phylum:     Mollusca
Class:     Gastropoda
Subclass:     Caenogastropoda
Superfamily:     Cerithioidea
Family:     Cerithiidae
Fleming, 1822[1]
71 extant species of Bittiinae

114 extant species of Cerithiinae
Fossil Bittium reticulatum.
File:SeaSnails.ogvPlay media
50 second video of snails (most likely Natica chemnitzi and Cerithium muscarum) feeding on the sea floor in the Gulf of California, Puerto Peñasco, Mexico

Cerithiidae, common name the cerithiids or ceriths, is a large family of medium-sized marine gastropods in the clade Sorbeoconcha.

    1 Distribution
    2 Diet
    3 Description
    4 Subfamilies
    5 Genera
    6 References
    7 External links


Ceriths are found worldwide on sandy bottoms, reef flats or coral reef rock covered with sand and algae in the sublittoral zone[littoral or neritic? clarification needed] of warm or temperate waters. Most are found in tropical areas. A few occur along the European coastline and about 30 species in two genera are found along the American coast. A few species occur in estuarine areas of mangrove forests close to the sea. Only a few species of the subfamily Bittiinae are found in deep water.

Ceriths are herbivores and detritivores that graze the sea bed.

Their slender shell is elongated with a pointed spire. They vary in size from 3 mm (Bittium alternatum) to 150 mm (Cerithium nodulosum). The smallest shells are found in the subfamily Bittiinae.

The many whorls have radial sculpture with axial ridges and nodules. The aperture shows at its base a vague curve or a distinct siphonal canal. The aperture is closed off by a thin oval brown operculum that is corneous and paucispiral. The palatal wall of the aperture is somewhat enlarged and often shows a varix.

The taenioglossan radula has seven teeth in each row. The single rachidian tooth is flanked on each side by one rhomboidal lateral tooth and two long, hook-like marginal teeth.

The following three subfamilies have been recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):[3]

    Alabininae Dall, 1927
    Bittiinae Cossmann, 1906[4]
    Cerithiinae Fleming, 1822 - synonyms: Rhinoclavinae Gründel, 1982; Colininae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987

Bandel (2006)[5] used different classification: Bittiinae on its own family level named Diastomatidae (overview of WoRMS).

Some authors classify Argyropezinae Bandel, 2006 as a synonym of Bittiinae.[6]

Genera within the family Cerithiidae include:

Alabininae Dall, 1927

    Alabina Dall, 1902 - type genus of the subfamily Alabininae, the type species of the genus Alabina is extinct[3]

Bittiinae Cossmann, 1906

Bandel (2006) recognized a family Bittiidae Cossmann, 1906 [which should then be named Diastomatidae Cossmann, 1894 on the grounds of priority] with five subfamilies Bittiinae Cossmann, 1906 (usually placed in Cerithiidae following Houbrick, 1993), Finellinae Thiele, 1931, Alabininae Dall, 1927, Dialinae Kay, 1979 and Diastomatinae Cossmann, 1894. This contradicts Ponder (1994) who grouped Finella with Scaliola A. Adams, 1860 in a separate family Scaliolidae Jousseaume, 1912 [Scaliolidae is nevertheless kept distinct by Bandel (2006: 76) on the basis of having a shell agglutinating sand-grains]. It also contradicts Houbrick (1993) who holds the Bittiinae as a subfamily of the Cerithiidae.

It seems premature to reflect this scheme,[according to whom?] which upsets current usage, in the WoRMS classification until shell characters are cross-checked with at least another independent (e.g. molecular) set of characters.

    Argyropeza Melvill & Standen, 1901
    Bittiolum Cossmann, 1906
    Bittium Gray, 1847 - type genus of the subfamily Bittiinae,[3] synonym: Dahlakia Biggs, 1971
    Cacozeliana Strand, 1928
    Cassiella Gofas, 1987
    Cerithidium Monterosato, 1884
    Ittibittium Houbrick, 1993
    Limatium Strong & Bouchet, 2018[7]
    Lirobittium Bartsch, 1911
    Neostylidium Doweld, 2013
    Pictorium Strong & Bouchet, 2013
    Varicopeza Gründel, 1976
    Zebittium Finlay, 1926

Cerithiinae Fleming, 1822 (synonyms
    Colininae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987; Rhinoclavinae Gründel, 1982)

    Cerithioclava Bruguière, 1789
    Cerithium Bruguière, 1789 - type genus of the subfamily Cerithiinae,[3] synonyms: Bayericerithium Petuch, 2001; Contumax Hedley, 1899; Thericium Monterosato, 1890
    Clavocerithium Cossmann, 1920
    Clypeomorus Jousseaume, 1888
    Colina H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854[3]
    Fastigiella Reeve 1848
    Gourmya Bayle, 1884
    Liocerithium Tryon, 1887
    Pseudovertagus Vignal, 1904
    Rhinoclavis Swainson, 1840[3] - synonyms: Clava Fabricius, 1823; Ochetoclava Woodring, 1928; Proclava Thiele, 1929; Vertagus Iredale, 1931
    Royella Iredale, 1912

subfamily ?[8][9][10]

    † Bezanconia Bayle in Fischer, 1884

Genera brought into synonymy

    Subfamily Colininae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 : synonym of Cerithiinae Fleming, 1822
    Subfamily Rhinoclavinae Gründel, 1982: synonym of Cerithiinae Fleming, 1822
    Subfamily † Tiaracerithiinae Bouniol, 1981: synonym of Batillariidae Thiele, 1929
    † Elassum Woodring, 1946: synonym of Alabina Dall, 1902
    Stylidium Dall, 1907: synonym of Neostylidium Doweld, 2013
    Cacozelia Iredale, 1924: synonym of Cacozeliana Strand, 1928
    Cerithiolum Tiberi, 1869: synonym of Bittium Gray, 1847
    Clathrofenella Kuroda & Habe, 1954: synonym of Cerithidium Monterosato, 1884
    Dahlakia Biggs, 1971: synonym ofBittium Gray, 1847
    Inobittium Monterosato, 1917: synonym of Bittium Gray, 1847
    Manobittium Monterosato, 1917: synonym of Bittium Gray, 1847
    Rasbittium Gründel, 1976: synonym of Bittium Gray, 1847
    Stylidium Dall, 1907: synonym of Neostylidium Doweld, 2013
    Bayericerithium Petuch, 2001: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Clava Fabricius, 1823: synonym of Rhinoclavis Swainson, 1840
    Contumax Hedley, 1899: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Drillocerithium Monterosato, 1910: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Gladiocerithium Monterosato, 1910: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Gourmierium Jousseaume, 1894: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Hirtocerithium Monterosato, 1910: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Liocerithium Sacco, 1894: synonym of Liocerithium Tryon, 1887
    Lithocerithium Monterosato, 1910: synonym of Cerithium Bruguière, 1789
    Ochetoclava Woodring, 1928: synonym of Rhinoclavis Swainson, 1840
    Proclava Thiele, 1929: synonym of Rhinoclavis (Proclava) Thiele, 1929 represented as Rhinoclavis Swainson, 1840
    Vertagus Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Rhinoclavis Swainson, 1840


Fleming, John (1822). The philosophy of zoology 2: 491.
Strong E. E., Colgan D. J., Healy J. M., Lydeard C., Ponder W. F. & Glaubrecht M. (2011). "Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 43-89. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00670.x.
Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1–2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
Cossmann (1906). Essais de paléoconchologie comparée 7: 64, 137.
Bandel K. (2006). "Families of the Cerithioidea and related superfamilies (Palaeo-Caenogastropoda; Mollusca) from the Triassic to the Recent characterized by protoconch morphology - including the description of new taxa". Freiberger Forschungshefte C 511: 59-138. PDF[permanent dead link].
Gofas, S. (2011). Bittiinae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=411649 on 2011-06-26
Strong, E. E.; Bouchet, P. (2018). "A rare and unusual new bittiine genus with two new species from the South Pacific". ZooKeys (758): 1–18. doi:10.3897/zookeys.758.25100. PMC 5962629. PMID 29844710. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
"Cerithiidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Shells Tricity

    GBIF Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine

This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (June 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

    Houbrick R. S. (1978). The family Cerithiidae in the Indo-Pacific. Part 1. The genera Rhinoclavis, Pseudovertagus and Clavocerithium. Monographs of Marine Mollusca 1: 1-130.
    Houbrick R. S. (1992). Monograph of the genus Cerithium Bruguiere in the Indo-Pacific (Cerithiidae--Prosobranchia). 211 p., Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington, D.C.)], PDF.

External links

    Miocene Gastropods and Biostratigraphy of the Kern River Area, California; United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 642 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

    Media related to Cerithiidae at Wikimedia Commons

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